Abimael Guzmán, leader of Guerrilla group die Peru terrorized, dies at 86

Abimael Guzmán, the founder and leader of the Shining Path guerrilla movement, die spread terror over a lot of of Peru in the 80s and 90s, passed away on Saturday in Peru. He was 86.

Mr Guzmán has passed away in An maximum-safety prison in the naval base Callao in Peru, where he served a life sentence, prison officials said. They said he died of health complications, but did not specify exact cause.

An estimated 70,000 Peruvians were killed during the decade-long peak of the revolt of the Shining Path, at least one-third on hand of guerrillas. Shining Path pleaded for a violent reorder of society away from the vices of city ​​life. The leaders reiterated the Cambodian Khmer Rouge with warnings that “rivers” of blood” would flow after their victory, and that as many as one million Peruvians could be convicted death.

Shining Path was almost entirely the view of Mr Guzmán, and for a time die he seemed to grab power in one of The most important in Latin America countries. His openly Maoist movement was one of the most violent radical in the hemisphere is modern history, and his fertile spirit and extraordinary powers of conviction laid the foundation for an intense cult of personality.

Like many of his generation in Latin America, Mr Guzmán was excited with The Revolutionary Victory of Fidel Castro in Cuba in 1959. Later, however, he developed contempt for Castro, the Soviet Union, and even moderate factions in China.

Mr Guzmán visited China several times. He got away with the vision of a Peru without money, banks, industry of abroad trade, where everyone would be a landowner and live of barter.

Both of Perus main Communist parties expelled him, but he… developed a dedicated coterie of students and professors.

“He was a very charismatic teacher, with a flowery rhetorical style die real attracted students”, the political scientist David Scott Palmer said: in 2013. “He got so strong, partly because of 17 years of preparation, and partly because government missteps created conditions die favorable to revolution.”

(Professor Palmer was a Peace Corps volunteer) in the 60s and shared a office in San Cristobal of Huamanga National University in Ayacucho, Peru, with Mr Guzman, who was then a faculty member. Professor Palmer passed away in 2018.)

luminous path carried out to be first violent actions in 1980, including the bombing of polling stations and the takeover of town halls in remote villages. a morning in December, people in Lima, the capital, awoke met the sight of dead dogs die hang on tens of Street lights. around the neck of each was a placard with a slogan die refers to faction struggle within the Chinese Communist Party.

This was the first sign of the phantasmagoric cruelty die was about to crash on Peru. Mr Guzman, die Calling himself President Gonzalo, proclaimed himself the ‘Fourth Sword’ of communism”, after Marx, Lenin and Mao. He preached “Gonzalo thought,” which he said was the… world to a “higher phase of marxism.”

“As the Shining Path” took up poor, the attempt seemed a doomed attempt to graft the Chinese experience on the completely different Peruvian culture,” wrote Peruvian journalist Gustavo Gorriti. “For most people in Peru, including the legal left, the movement seemed to be a mad cult, hopelessly separated from reality.”

But Mr Guzmán’s fighters conducted a spectacularly successful military campaign that brought big parts of the country under their control. Terror and murder were favorite tactics. The conflict spread from the countryside to Lima, where supplies of water, electricity and food became unreliable.

bombs exploded in movie theatres, restaurants and police stations. Kidnappings were ubiquitous. Messages appeared on walls warning burgers to flee. Thousands did. The economy, already in terrible shape because of bad political leadership, threw himself in chaos.

Shining Path tried to find a base among natives people whose needs have long been ignored by the Peruvian elite, although many indigenous people goods also victims of the revolt. Part of mr. Guzman’s strategy was to be the army of the nation in to provoke bloody reprisals and reveal his ‘fascist entrails’.

Military repression was indeed powerful. Soldiers killed a lot burgers and terrorized indigenous regions, forcing many to support the rebels.

After several years, the government changed Class. It withdrew some offending units, gave soldiers rudimentary human rights training and started citizen action programs.

Two digits linked with the campaign against Shining Path, President Alberto Fujimori and His Intelligence director, Vladimiro Montesinos, later got long prison punishment after conviction of endearing in corruption and sponsorship death squadrons.

On September 12, 1992, members of An special police unit die engages met following Shining Path leaders closed in on An home in a wealthy neighborhood in Lima and captured Mr. Guzmán. He came out in An military court of law wearing An blackwhite striped prisoner’s uniform. Judges met hoodie found owe him of terror crimes and sentenced him to life imprisonment.

In 1993, Mr. Guzmán appeared several times on Peruvian television and called on Shining Path warriors to give up their arms. Most did, and the rebellion pale.

Manuel Rubén Abimael Guzmán Reynoso was born on Dec 3, 1934, in the city of Mollendo, on South coast of Peru. To be father, who had six children with three women, won An prize in the national lottery and sent him to a Roman Catholic high school and to college.

After getting diplomas in law and philosophy, mr. Guzman joined the faculty of the National University of San Agustín in the mountain town of Arequipa. He became director of his teacher training program, die attracted students from indigenous villages.

It is not known that Mr Guzmán has had children. Like a young man, he got married met Augusta LaTorre, daughter of a leader of the communist party in ayacucho. Known as ‘Comrade Norah’, she became the… second in assignment of Shining path. she died in 1988 under mysterious circumstances.

In 2010, when Mr Guzmán was 75, the authorities gave him permission to met Elena Iparraguirre to marry, who had replaced Comrade Norah as leader of the Shining Path No. 2 and was also serving a life sentence on allegations of terrorism. They were still being held in separate prisons.

Mr Guzmán received a second trial, before a civil court, after his military process was found unconstitutional. In 2006 it is found owe him of aggravated terrorism and murder, and confirmed his life sentence. During the trial, he screamed what could have been his… last public words.

“Long live the communist party of Peru!” he shouted, waving met a fist above his head. “Glory to Marxism-Leninism-Maoism! Glory to the Peruvian people! Long live the heroes of the peopleis war!”

Julie Turkewitz, Elda Cantú and Mitra Taj reported.

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