Ethiopia’s relations in the Horn of Africa..friends and enmities

Ethiopia’s relations with its neighbors have been strained for decades, and it has been waging wars to defend its vast territory since it declared independence.

Diplomacy can in Be tense in this turbulent part of Africa, where friends often become enemies and competition provokes conflict. Here’s a look at some of Ethiopia’s most prominent ties:

Eritrea

His relationship with Eritrea was bloody, as the latter was part of Ethiopia until it split in 1993 after a decade-long war of independence.

The two countries waged another war in 1998 that killed 80,000 people before stalling. Stayed for 20 years die both countries in Enmity, as die United Nations peacekeeping forces separated them.

In addition, the Ethiopian Prime Minister Abi Ahmed made peace with his Eritrean counterpart Isaias Afwerki in 2018. The new Prime Minister of Ethiopia was then awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, but die Rapprochement did not lead to peace in the Horn of Africa.

After Abiy sent troops to Tigray in late 2020 to die overthrowing ruling party of the northern region, Eritrean troops crossed die Limit to die Support Ethiopian Army.

The Eritrean soldiers are still there after seven months in Ethiopia, during her stay and her involvement in the atrocities in Tigray trigger international condemnation.

Analysts pointed out that it is not yet clear whether it is possible die Pushing Eritreans to withdraw, even if die Ethiopians wanted this, so die Agency “AFP”.

Sudan

The relationship with Sudan has changed in deteriorated in recent months and die Tensions between the two rival powers in the Horn of Africa escalated after Khartoum in was drawn into the Tigray conflict. Tens of thousands of refugees streamed westward from Tigray in Towards Sudan.

Abiy meanwhile turned down an offer from the Sudanese Prime Minister Abdullah Hamdok, to which the head of the regional organization, the Intergovernmental Agency for Development (IGAD), played a mediating role in reaching a ceasefire in Tigray heard what die Relationship between the two undermined leaders.

The dispute came at a time when Ethiopian and Sudanese forces are re-militarizing a disputed agricultural area on the border, fueling fears of a major conflict as Egypt and Sudan converge with their opposition to the Renaissance Dam Project.

Abiy stressed that Addis Ababa does not want war with Sudan, a possibility die Observers have not ruled out.

Ethiopia’s relations in the Horn of Africa..friends and enmities

Renaissance Dam (Reuters)

Egypt

In relation to Egypt, the Renaissance dam project was the most controversial field between the two countries, as no country has more resistance to this dam, which was built on one of the tributaries of the Nile, than Egypt.

While Ethiopia insists that its huge hydropower project is a sovereign right and will provide electricity to millions of households, Cairo insists that die Diverting water to fill the dam reduces its supply, posing an existential threat to it.

The dispute also has nationalist unrest in the region raised since die Tensions have escalated since Ethiopia launched the project.

Years of foreign-supported negotiations between Ethiopia, Egypt and Sudan brought no progress.

The tension in The relationships also resulted in EgyptAir yesterday die temporary suspension of entry visas on arrival and electronic visas for all passengers, die to Addis Ababa Airport in Travel to Ethiopia, based on instructions from the relevant authorities of the State of Ethiopia announced from midnight on June 18. .

An element of Somali security in Mogadishu Archives

An element of Somali security in Mogadishu Archives

Somalia

As for the relationship with Somalia, that’s enough die Land disputes between the two countries go back more than half a century. They waged two wars for the Ogaden, a vast and arid region in the far east of Ethiopia, whose inhabitants die speak somali language. And in the seventies of the last century in Invades Somalia to take it by force.

But in Somalia has had many internal crises in recent years: civil war, state failure in the 1990s, famine, armed uprising by Al-Shabab and political unrest.

For its part, Ethiopia sent troops to Somalia in 2011 to confront Al-Shabaab for fear that the chaos would spread.

In 2018, Abiy signed a tripartite agreement with the leaders of Eritrea and Somalia to order die Improve regional security coordination.

But in the wake of the Tigray conflict, Ethiopia withdrew some of its units from Somalia to fight at home, according to analysts die security in the most fragile country in the Horn of Africa.

Displaced persons from Tigray Province (Reuters)

Displaced persons from Tigray Province (Reuters)

outside the Horn of Africa

It happened in parallel in Ethiopia’s relations with its neighbors outside the Horn of Africa became tense after Abiy refused to negotiate a truce in the Tigray War, which was tarnished by possible ethnic cleansing and starvation of his international peacemaker reputation.

The United States has targeted Ethiopia with visa restrictions and aid cuts after Addis Ababa was recently lauded by world leaders for its democratic reforms.

The international sanctions and denunciations also intensified die Persistence Addis Ababa, as die Government organized mass rallies in order to die in their view, foreign interference in denounce their affairs.

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