A figure like Ruhollah Mousavi Khomeini, who cannot be read only as a jurisprudential reference for Shia Muslims, or as a leader of the revolution in Iran; His sacred admirers and demonized enemies see him as one of the most influential leaders who have changed the history of the Middle East region and the violent conflicts and wars it has witnessed. His ideas also pushed towards structural changes in the role of religious scholars, and contributed to the “revolution of jurisprudence”, removing it from the space of the provisions of prayer, fasting and traditional worship, from the spaces of the “religious state” and related thorny issues; These concepts reflected directly on the foreign relations of the regime of the “Islamic Republic” which had been established in Iran after the 1979 revolution, and made those relations of a strained nature with neighboring Arab countries, which raised the level of the nascent state’s rise of the “export the revolution” slogan, and subsequent meddling in the affairs of the country.
Furthermore, Khomeini’s jurisprudential influence on internal issues within Iran cannot be ignored, which changed the face of the monarchy with a liberal and modernizing character influenced by Western ideas.
Whereas the supporters of the revolution have tried to establish borders, Islamise society and religious parties, in order to implement the Sharia and its laws on people and to create volunteer groups of young revolutionaries who have tried to impose their orientations with the come on to the Iranians, in particularly to women, who made them the subject of numerous harassment and aggression, which in its harshest expressions amounted to throwing “acid” on veiled girls!
Islamists or Shiites weren’t the only ones who interacted with the “Islamic revolution” in 1979. There are many Arab leftist and even Western intellectuals who have written about this event; Here, names such as: Michel Foucault, Hazem Saghieh and Adonis stand out. It was a moment of great emotion, especially since what delighted a large sector was not the victory of Khomeini himself, but rather the fall of the regime of Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi, which they considered a unilateral and undemocratic regime!
Al-Sayyid Khomeini, the religious authority, to which a part of Shiite Muslims is traditionally attributed in Iran and abroad, despite the existence of widely popular references such as Imam Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei, who is called “Professor of Jurists.” Khomeini was in able to establish a new curriculum in the seminary, in contrast with the historical vision of the Iraqi “Najaf” seminary, and pushing the “Qom” seminary in Iran towards political commitment in a way that directly involved the religious in the parties, the struggle and the taking of arms on the battle fronts; It was a violent demolition of a classical path that extended into the era of the occultation of Imam Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Mahdi, 260 AH and up to 1979. The biography of the legislator and the great Shiite Imami jurists was conducted on it, before Khomeini worked for his own path, which he followed in his lessons during his stay in the city of The Iraqi Najaf, then those lessons were printed in the book “Islamic Government”, which is based on the absolute “custody of the jurist “, which is the state that draws its powers from the” wilayat of the infallible Imam “, according to the Khomeinist vision, in as a just and courageous jurist who collects all conditions, he is the deputy of the Imam, and therefore He has all his powers, except what is limited to “infallibility”.
The difference of the scholars
The “protection of the jurist” was the subject of great controversy at the time, as most Ja’afari jurists believed in the “restricted protection” of minors and orphans and in matter of “hisba” within narrow limits established in the books of the fatwas, and also those who believed in a guardianship of the jurist are wider than that, it did not arise to be in the same The revolutionary character that Khomeini brought.
Some viewed this as a form of jurisprudence that transcends the text, which was implemented for political purposes with the aim of establishing the religious rule and the needs of the stage. This is why the critics of the “absolute protection of the jurist” have not found the prove presented by Ayatollah Khomeini, Nahdah. research “, who work to study every evidence and prove it or disprove it, and builds on it Every jurist has his own jurisprudence, but what matters are the social and political effects of that theory, which are effects that some see as having a” negative ” , especially on the “Arab Shiites”. Shiites, while reality is not.
clash of ideas
It was a struggle for the role of religious scholars between Khomeini’s vision and the vision of the Shiite classics, in which senior jurists found themselves without changing their views, in in particular Ayatollah Abu al-Qasim al-Khoei, Ayatollah Muhammad Kazem Sharia Madari and Sayyid Hassan al-Qummi and others.
This does not mean that Khomeini had no followers, rather, there was a generation of mujtahids who supported him in this, including: Sheikh Mortada Motahari, Sayyid Muhammad Baqir Al-Sadr and Sheikh Hussein Ali Montazeri; Mr. Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah; Although the last three personalities have had changes in their intellectual and political outlook, some of them have withdrawn from the partisan political scene, such as the late reference Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr who left the Dawa Party, and another wrote a critique of Wilayat al-Faqih’s Khomeinist vision, like Ayatollah Montazeri, who was Khomeini’s successor, before he was removed from office!
A personality like Ayatollah Muhammad Hussein Fadlallah, and due to his social and political experience and his cultural openness, has developed his vision of the “protection of the jurist”, which he initially supported, and modified some details in the last years of his life, when he realized the danger of having “absolute power” in the hands of a person: one, why in this is a push towards “tyranny” and forcing people to do what they cannot bear. Above all that Fadlallah asked for the “wise reference”, and believed that the “human state” was the public space in which all citizens can live, regardless of their sects and religions, and have the right to freely practice their different faiths and without any coercion.
There are those who believe in the “general protection of the jurist”, such as Sayyid Muhammad al-Husseini al-Shirazi, but his first disagreements with Ayatollah Khomeni led him to advance the theory of a “consultation of jurists”, trying to it in more than one book, and by making the matter vulnerable to a council that includes a group of lawyers, decisions are approved for consultation, in so that there is no singularity of opinion!
Perhaps one of the most critical views, which offered an alternative to “jurist’s custody”, is the theory of “the nation’s protection of itself”, advanced by the late scholar Sheikh Muhammad Mahdi Shams al-Din, a prominent Lebanese jurist and intellectual whose profound critical and political experience led him to believe more.The role of the people in establishing the system of government, and that the protection in any system is for the people and not for the jurist.
Extension of the state
The current leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, followed the path of Ayatollah Khomeini in believing and consolidating general velayat-e faqih, and with him was a group of jurists from the “Qom” seminary, such as Sheikh Nasser. Makarim Shirazi and Sheikh Jawadi Amoli, and his strength has been enhanced by the growing role of the Revolutionary Guard Corps, as well as external weapons and parties that believe in it, such as: Hezbollah Lebanon, Asa’ib Ahl al-Haq, Hezbollah al- Hijaz, and other combative ideological information that must listen and obey the “guardian al-faqih” as the deputy of the infallible Imam.
This historical background is important to understand scientifically in calm way, away from feelings of support or opposition, because the objective understanding of ideas, especially those that deeply affected the Arabian Gulf region, this understanding is a key to solving the problems left by them, and addressing their social effects, security and politicians.
A large number of young Shia Muslims in the Gulf and the Arab world have seen in “Wilayat al-Faqih” a lifeline, a formula that realizes their individual and collective selves, and makes them feel strong, and the possibility that they have prestige and influence, and therefore a number of them believed in it, and fewer groups went and joined the party formations of God in the Gulf, especially in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, also affected the young kinetics of Bahrain, some of whom committed acts of terrorist operations that damaged the pace civilian and others trained in the Revolutionary Guard camps in Iran and Lebanon. Rather, the influence of the “jurist’s custody” did not stop with Shia Muslims, as its enemies of Salafist activists were affected, in particularly the “Sururiyya”. You can review Dr. Ghazi Al-Qusaibi’s book, “So That There Is No Sedition”, where he collected a number of sayings from the affected Sahwa clerics. With the ideas of Wilayat al-Faqih, as well as the alliance of “Muslim Brotherhood” groups with it, in more than an Arab country, the most striking example is the relationship of the “Hamas” movement with the Iranian regime.
The report, published on January 5 by the site “Al Arabiya.net”, it was titled”The Saudis in the Hezbollah campsHe pointed out that there were several reasons that led some Saudi youth to join the “Hezbollah Al-Hijaz” organization, and perhaps one of the most important of these reasons: listening, obedience and emotional conviction in the theory of absolute protection of the jurist and the impressionist image that was formed in the minds of these young people of the founder of the revolution in Iran, Mr. Khomeni and his successor Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei.
The dismantling of this “aura of holiness” is the first way to “free oneself from political Khomeinism”, that is, to free oneself from the burdens of the “general protection of the jurist” and his religious obligations. Deconstruction, works to “disarm the magic”, according to the philosopher and sociologist Max Weber, and to show the profound “explosion” within the theory itself, and its inability to keep up with the values of modernity, civic and liberalism, but rather to push it towards greater radicalism and the consolidation of the obsolete power of the clergy.
Through these precise and serious treatments, which separate the religious from the political, and read the events in their historical contexts, their social developments, the speeches produced by them that have accumulated and transformed as “the constant” that cannot be modified; In this way a new independent awareness can be created, otherwise more young people will remain in search of these ideas, unable to transcend them, even if they do not necessarily fall into them or work with them. in this moment, but ideas will remain valid in their eyes, and applicable in every moment. Paying attention to the “time bombs” hidden inside, which can explode anywhere and in any moment, causing many problems in Gulf societies, and herein lies the danger of the ideas of Islam “of a certain and proven character, which she believes to be the right via, and consequently the first steps are scientific criticism, free from sanctification and deaf obedience. History says that the violence produced by Islamist parties and currents had a great calamity even for their followers, on the day in which the revolution “eats its children”!
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