From Cyprus to Exploration, Libya. The wounds of Ankara and the Europeans were not healed

There are many sensitive issues die die Tensions between Ankara and the countries of the European Union in have tightened in recent years. From Cyprus via die Refugee files and die Gas exploration in the Mediterranean to Libya and human rights, Turkish associations in France and elsewhere and recent allegations by French President Emmanuel Macron, himself in die Interfering with elections are all “wounds, die are not cured “” Despite the truce between the two parties. Recently, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and other Turkish officials have softened their rhetoric.

In this context, today’s visit by the President of the European Council, Charles Michel, and the President of the Commission, Ursula von der Leyen, in Ankara, in the die Conditions presented by the Union for a gradual resumption of economic relations and die support for in refugees living in Turkey were discussed.

They also carry a “roadmap”, die die Decisions by the heads of state and government of EU countries during their summit meeting on March 26 are, according to one member in Brussels.

Ankara’s view of Europe

This is happening during the Ankara accession process to the European Union due to the tension in these controversial files have stalled for several years.

Striving since 1963 die Turkey to join the European Union. On September 12th, she signed an Association Agreement with the European Economic Community (die was previously the European bloc, before it became a union), in which mentions their “possibility of membership”.

However, this partnership process continued after the military coup in Turkey frozen in September 1980.

In 1987 Ankara officially submitted its candidacy to the European Union, die However, the Commission rejected them on the grounds of economic and political problems.

Human rights situation

A customs union agreement was signed in 1995, but this soon became due to anger Greece over die The Cyprus issue was suspended as Turkish forces occupied the northern part of the island from 1974 and from 1983 die “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” declared unilaterally.

Granted at the end of 1999 die Europeans granted Turkey the status of a candidate without specifying a date for starting negotiations. And they asked her die To improve the human rights situation and their economic performance.

Then, in 2001, Ankara adopted a “national program” of political and economic measures, and in 2002 Parliament voted to die Abolish the death penalty and grant the Kurds cultural rights.

Start the connection process

Then started the Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, who started 2003 with the Justice and Development Party die Power came, a project of political and economic reform in the hope of joining the European Union. In July 2005, his country signed the “Ankara Protocol” and expanded its customs union die ten countries, die joined the European Union. However, the European Union in 2004, including Cyprus, did not ratify it.

Accession negotiations began in October despite opposition from several countries, particularly Austria.

The negotiations stumbled

Failed in a very short time die Negotiations, however, since Germany and France die Opening of five new negotiation and accession chapters, die would have made Turkey’s accession an irreversible path. In 2009 she proposed “a privileged partnership for die Turkey before, but not full membership “.

In the meantime, Ankara refused to die Extend the benefits of its free movement agreement with the European Union to Cyprus.

Immigration deal … and a failed coup

Later were die Negotiations resumed (2013), but were again delayed due to the suppression of a wave of protests in Turkey.

At the height of the crisis of millions of asylum seekers fleeing Syria, Chancellor Angela Merkel visited Istanbul in October 2015.

In March 2016, Ankara and die European Union concluded an agreement with the die Number of immigrants entering Europe can be drastically reduced.

At the end of June a new chapter was opened dealing with budgetary issues.

In many European countries, in particular in Germany, after the failed coup in July there were serious tensions with Turkey, die led to massive purges.

Mounting tension

Adopted on July 15, 2019 die European Union took a number of political and financial measures to oppose sanctions despite its warnings die Turkey’s continued illegal drilling in to impose on the territorial waters of Cyprus.

He also criticized Ankara’s attack on northern Syria against a Kurdish armed group in October.

In addition, the Union Foreign Minister condemned the Union in January 2020 die Turkey’s “interference” in the Libya conflict

Request for guarantees

Criticized on December 11th die Heads of State and Government of the EU die “illegal and aggressive” actions by Turkey in the Mediterranean region and limited themselves to imposing individual sanctions, die should be directed against persons, die are involved in exploration activities in the Mediterranean.

On the 15th of the same month, however, Erdogan reiterated his desire to open a “new page” with the European Union.

However, on March 25, 2021, Europe requested guarantees in order to die Relationships resumed, and Ankara was monitored until June to demonstrate its opposition to the deterioration in rights and freedoms.

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